Saturday, December 12, 2015

Argument



Some of the Important Terms:

argument writing

a type of writing that states a position on a topic and defends it

formal style
writing that does not include contractions or the pronouns “You” or “I”


hook
a sentence that will engage your reader

introduction
the first paragraph of an essay

background information
the information the reader needs to understand a topic and why it is being discussed

claim (also called the thesis)
a sentence that states your position and includes your main reasons

body paragraph

a paragraph that comes between the introduction and the conclusion

transitions
words or groups of words that connect ideas and show relationships

topic sentence

the sentence (most often near the beginning of the paragraph) that states the central idea of the paragraph

reasons
logical main points to support a claim

evidence
facts, examples, statistics, etc. that support a claim

warrant
explains evidence and shows how it supports your reasons/claim

elaboration
explains evidence and shows how it supports your reasons/claim

counterclaim
the opposing argument


refutation/rebuttal 

proving why a counterclaim is wrong using reasons and evidence

conventions
correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation

citation

giving the source of the evidence

conclusion
sums up the main point of essay



and 
  Study for the Argument Vocabulary Post Test.
Quizlet for argument vocabulary: https://quizlet.com/_1mpfek
(Notice that Quizlet provides you with several different ways to study for the test.)
Important Note: When we take the argument vocabulary post test (in Term 2), you will be expected to know ALL of the terms and their definitions. 


Argument Writing Vocabulary.pptx

________________________

1.) What do you think? • CLAIM
2.) Why do you think that? • REASONS
3.) How do you know that’s true? • EVIDENCE
4.) Why do the reasons/evidence support the claim? • WARRANTS
5.) What about alternative views or contrary evidence? • COUNTERCLAIM 
6.) How will you answer the counterclaim?    REFUTATION/REBUTTAL 
also called ACKNOWLEDGEMENT/RESPONSE





For Reasons: and Difference between Reasons and Evidence
• Do your reasons explain why you think the audience should accept your claim?
• Do they represent judgments not shared by your audience (i.e. are you already
preaching to the converted? If so, where’s the argument?)
• Do your reasons rest on evidence? Remember, reasons exist in our heads, while what the
reasons are based on (evidence) is out there in the world.

For Warrants:
• Does is assert a logical connection between your reason/evidence and your claim?
• Does the warrant include both your reason and your evidence?
• Can it be assumed, or does it need stating?
• Remember, warrants can be thought of as if/then statements that name a general
circumstance and state a general inference based on that circumstance (like a
proverb); warrants tend to fail when they are rejected as untrue or they don’t apply to
the reason and/or claim.
• Think of a warrant as that thing at the end of your reasons/evidence that links those
things back to your claim –if it’s not obvious from the paragraph itself, a simple statement
asserting this is necessary.